Research: Project 2 Lens work – Guy Bourdin

Guy Bourdin was a french fashion photographer who had great success in the 1970s. He created a style of imagery that effectively captured a surreal quality partly due to the hyper-real colour pallette that he used, but also through his use of front to back depth of field. Literally everything is in focus and this permits the eye to take in a lot of detail in the image.

“Deep focus give the eye autonomy to roam over the picture space so that the viewer is at leat given the opportunity to edit the scene himself, to select the aspects of it to which he will attend.” – Bazin (1948) quoted in Thompson & Bordwell, 2007

In some of his images, the depth of the image is limited by a close background so the deep focus is compressed by a shallow image stage, in others the there is a deeper image as the background is further away, but we often uses props to create the effect of a theatre stage backdrop or series of backdrops so there isn’t a natural gradual receding background but rather a number of staged, parallel backdrops, each further away from the previous providing a discrete stepping of distance rather an analogue recession.  This creates an unusual sense of drama in his images, a sense of other worldliness that transcends our every day experience of the world as we usually perceive it. This use of deep focus, colour and staged background makes his images both compelling and unsettling to view. He almost anticipates the digital age, though he died, in  1991 well before its advent.

Below is a photograph I took using deep focus and a slightly surreal image of a phone box on a beach. It was a hot summer and the colours are strong which gives an edgy feel enhanced by the deep focus.  I use a Nikon D70 with a 50mm f1.4 lens at f13.  I could not find anything comparable with people in my personal archive.


  1. Guy Bourdin courtesy Michael Hoppen Gallery at – accessed February 2018
  2. Mark Owen-Ward (2010)


Bloomfield, R (2014) Photography 1: Expressing your Vision., OCA 2017, pp.48-51

Research: Project 2 Lens work – Mona Kuhn

In Project 2 of Part 2, we are encouraged to research the varying depth of field  chosen by various photographers to understand the effect on the viewer of different lens technique and on occasion the political impact of choosing either a shallow or a deep depth of field.

“The most political decision you can make is where you direct people’s eyes.” – Wim Wenders (1997) quoted in Bromberg & Chanarin, 2008

Mona Kuhn is  a photographer who seems to prefer the use of shallow depth of field. Whereas “soft focus” has in the past been a cliched technique used in portraiture to romanticise and feminise, presenting an unrealistic and flawless view of the subject, often female, Kuin uses selective focus to create a sense of intimacy between the viewer and the subject.

In her “Evidence” series, Kuhn uses both reflection and depth of field to great effect to draw us closer to the subject – in one example the focus is at the front of the image and in the background out of focus are  pair of nude figures in close proximity. This creates the sense of great intimacy and mystery and of a feeling of us being in the room and somehow part of the scene, yet not as a voyeur but as part of the image. She portrays beautiful people as her website suggests, perhaps as part of a”utopian community” of which the viewer/photographer appears, at least briefly, to be a part.  It is clear that the photographer is presenting her beliefs in her imagery, perhaps that one based on a more collective and sensual approach to life in clear contrast to the nuclear family model which is the societal norm in the west.

In interview in Issue Magazine (online) Kuhn talks about being “drawn to nudes as timeless forms” but also mentions being introduced to the naturist community in France where “Nudity is perceived as free and natural. It reflects a basic understanding of freedom and respect that I have not seen anywhere else.”

Clearly her images point to her own personal experience, her belief in nudity as freedom and her perception of the nude as an interesting form in itself.  Her images are not overtly sexual, which whilst not ignored, is not the intention of her photography.

In contrast, the photographer Rineke Dijkstra, has taken nude images of women who have recently given birth.  The images, in The Photograph As Contemporary Art, are far removed from the mysterious sensuality of Kuhn’s imagery.  Dijkstra takes full length portraits of her subjects with full depth of field and straight on.  There is no suggestion or attempt to portray sensuality – instead she show s an “unsentimental approach to maternity” that portrays the reality of the impact of pregnancy on women, yet also shows the instinctive protective and nurturing care towards their newborn children.

The different use of depth of field by each of these photographers creates a very different experience for the viewer.  Both techniques are creative but I wonder whether as a photographer they are mutually exclusive, but which I mean do you have to choose one path or the other or is it possible to use both techniques within a single voice?

Below is a photograph I took some years ago of my then very young daughter using an old Pentax ME Super film camera.  I remember the shot was taken on a 50mm lens at f1.7 (the maximum aperture).  The negative was then scanned. This uses a shallow depth of field for maximum effect!


  1. Mona Kuhn, Evidence portfolio courtesy of, accessed February 2018
  2. Mark Owen-Ward (2007)


  1. Bloomfield, R (2014) Photography 1: Expressing your Vision., OCA 2017, pp.48-51
  2., accessed February 2018
  3., accessed February 2018
  4. Cotton, C (2004), The Photograph As Contemporary Art, Thames & Hudson, pp. 112-113

Research: Project 3 Surface & Depth – Thomas Ruff













At the conclusion of part one of Expressing Your Vision we studied a small project entitled “Surface & Depth”. In this project we consider two alternate views of the work of Thomas Ruff, a photographic artist who recycles old images, processing them to make creative use of jpeg artifacts, the 8 pixel by 8 pixel square, clearly visible in the first image above “Jpeg rl1104 (2007).”

David Campany 1 , a writer , curator, artist and lecturer at the University of Westminster, describes the work of Ruff as both “aesthetic” and “intellectual”. By aesthetic he means the form of the image and the beauty within it regardless of context. Ruff uses both his own images and those of others, all images being part of a collective photographic archive, to produce images that create a similar response in the viewer, regardless of who the original photographer was: the creative act being the reimagining of the original photograph into a new and very large scale artwork (Ruff’s images are typically printed 5-6 feet wide or tall). In presenting images from the collective archive but presenting it through the artist’s own grid of the use of series and the use of the pixel (in contrast to the historical use of grain to artistic effect), Campany talks about the images tapping into nested archives and how they affect all of us and how the use of images from various archives presents images that may never have been seen before. What he does in many ways reflects modern music with it’s use of the sample and overdub which takes a sample of an older familiar piece of music (for example, Sting’s 1983 track “Every breath you take” represented by Puff Daddy in 1997 as “I’ll be missing you) or older unfamiliar pieces of music such as the samples of blues recordings used on Moby’s 1999 album “Play” to create something new and as creative as the original pieces.

In contrast, Joerg Colberg 2, a writer and editor, whilst describing Ruff’s images as creative and even beautiful, raises the question of whether or not Ruff’s work is even photography. It is photographic but not photography. Historically Ruff discovered his process when his own photographs of the tragedy of 9/11 were mis-exposed or processed and he reverted to looking at images grabbed from the Internet. The low resolution of the images opened his mind to the possibility of deliberately using low-resolution jpeg compression on other images to create large artworks that highlight that technique. In Colberg’s writing he admires the beauty of the outcome but expresses disappointment at “the ultimate thinness of the concept behind it.” He clearly views Ruff as simply applying a thoughtless filter to any image he might come across to create an empty pretty image – an image created solely through a technique, so lacking in any true creativity.

Having tried this myself, I would say the technical side itself is not completely straightforward and nor is the idea of re-presenting another’s original work lacking in creativity compared with the original. Many might same that the multiple Variations on the theme originally written by Paganini are better than the theme and the world is better off for the multiple variations.

I finish this project with a re-imagined version of one of my own images from 2007. I am reasonably happy with it though it doesn’t have the vividness of a Ruff image but it definitely looks better printed.












  1. Bloomfield, R (2014) Photography 1: Expressing your Vision., OCA 2017, p.33
  2. – visited January 2018
  3. – visited January 2018

Assignment 1: Research & approach

Gawain Barnard
Fig.1. “Journey’s by Train” no.4

This first project deliberately takes me away from my comfort zone – I will be using colour and different lenses to usual.  I have mostly used a standard  or mild wide lens such as a 50 or 35mm, so using a wide-angle will present some challenges.  For research I was keen to look at photographers that use colour effectively and that are more people-focused as making people the main subject is another of my dis-comforts on this assignment. Coupled with using wide-angle I am literally going to have to be in the face of my subjects.

Gawain Barnard 2
Fig.2. “Journey’s by Train” no.22

For inspiration I have enjoyed the Journey’s by Train portfolio by Gawain Barnard (see figs. 1-2) – most, but not all of the images involve people and are often snatched images.  But he makes great use of colour and movement, often using motion blur. I would like to be able to convey some of that sense of motion along with the empathy he conveys in his images.





Venetia Dearden 1
Fig. 3 by, Venetia Dearden

Venetia Dearden presents images in both black and white and colour. I particularly enjoy the muted colour in her colour images; coupled with shallow depth of field and the frequent use of contra-jour her images have a warm, emotional and very connected feel .  She clearly loves what it means to be human and shows humanity glowing brightly amongst a selection of banal surroundings, something that I really hope to be able to convey in my shots.




List of illustrations

  1. Barnard, G. “Journey’s by Train” number 4, At: (accessed June 2017)
  2. Barnard, G. “Journey’s by Train” number 22, At: (accessed June 2017)
  3. Dearden, V. At: (accessed June 2017)